Maps of the Month 2013

November 2013:
Regional Transportation Plan Breakdown of Funding Allocations by Type: America's Top 20 Most Populated MPOs

Posted by Kearey Smith | MTC GIS

Metropolitan areas, the powerhouses of the nation's economy, are pursuing a diverse range of strategies to improve their transportation systems - by expanding public transit, widening roadways, and preserving existing infrastructure built by prior generations. By examining long-range funding allocations for America's most populous 20 metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs), the distribution of funding for operations and maintenance (O&M) versus expansion, as well as roadways versus public transit, can be identified. Aging regions (New York, Boston, Chicago, Philadelphia and Pittsburgh) are spending large shares of their regional funding on preserving existing road and transit infrastructure; newer regions with rapid growth are pursuing different strategies, some heavily dependent on highway expansion (Denver, Dallas, Phoenix) and others with a more balanced approach incorporating substantial investment in fixed-guideway transit systems (Los Angeles, San Diego).

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September 2013:
Distance Driven and Economic Activity in 2011

Posted by Kearey Smith | MTC GIS

From the 1930s to 2003, there was a high correlation between miles driven and state GDP. The greater the number of miles driven the higher the state GDP. Starting in 2003, these two parameters began to diverge, due to a lack of growth in the amount of miles being driven. This map shows the relationship between total vehicle miles driven and GDP per state in 2011. According to the recent report "Distance Driven and Economic Activity in the Individual U.S. States: 1997-2011," done by the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute, the District of Columbia had the highest GDP per distance driven ($30.04/mile), followed by Alaska ($11.16/mile), and New York ($9.16/mile). Among the lowest states were Mississippi ($2.51/mile), Alabama ($2.75/mile), and New Mexico ($3.12/mile). The study also found that higher density populations correlated to a higher GDP/mile ratio, which is expected. But it rather unexpectedly found that states with large land areas correlated to a high level of GDP/mile ratio.

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July 2013:
Amount Spent on Infrastructure, 1992-2011

Posted by Kearey Smith | MTC GIS

China invests 8.5% of its GDP on infrastructure. This amount almost doubles the combined infrastructure investment of the European Union (2.6% GDP) and the United States (2.6% GDP). In fact, it far exceeds what any other country or region spends; China’s infrastructure spending is twice the level of India, and more than four times that of Latin America. In the U.S., the largest share of infrastructure spending is towards Roads, followed by Transit and Water. According to the Congressional Budget Office (CBO), between 2003 and 2007, public spending on transportation and water infrastructure declined by $23 billion, or 6 percent. That decline, which reflects a decrease in real capital spending, especially by the federal government, stands in contrast to the fairly steady increase in spending for such infrastructure during the previous two decades. In particular, real capital spending on highways, mass transit, and aviation fell markedly even as capital spending on other types of infrastructure—such as rail and water transportation, water resources, and water supply and wastewater treatment—remained stable or rose.

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June 2013:
Estimated Vehicle Miles Traveled on All Roads

Posted by Kearey Smith | MTC GIS

This map and chart illustrates total vehicle miles traveled on all roads across the country. The data is based upon traffic volume trends data collected by the U.S. D.O.T data from January 1971 to February 2013. Since June 2005, vehicle miles driven have fallen 8.75 percent. This decline has remained steady for the past 92 months. There are several reasons that may be causing this steady downward trend. It has been suggested that due to rising gas prices, the Great Recession, an aging population led by the Baby Boom generation which is comprised of Americans over the age of 55 who tend to drive less, and quite possibly younger Americans choosing to drive less. Between 2001 and 2009, the average yearly number of miles driven by 16- to 34-year-olds has dropped 23 percent.

Researchers indicate that this trend may be linked to five principal factors:

  1. The cost of Driving has increased
  2. The recent recession
  3. It is harder to get a license in many states
  4. More younger people are choosing to live in transit-oriented areas and
  5. Technology is making it easier to go car-free

Data Source Information:

Traffic Volume Trends is a monthly report based on hourly traffic count data reported by the States. These data are collected at approximately 4,000 continuous traffic counting locations nationwide and are used to estimate the percent change in traffic for the current month compared with the same month in the previous year. Estimates are re-adjusted annually to match the vehicle miles of travel from the Highway Performance Monitoring System and are continually updated with additional data.

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APRIL 2013:
Job Sprawl in 100 Largest Metropolitan Areas

Posted by Kearey Smith | MTC GIS

This map highlights the results of a study conducted by the Brookings Institute which shows the distribution of private-sector employment within 35 miles of the top 100 metro area downtowns. The study concluded that:

  • Steep employment losses following the Great Recession stalled the steady decentralization of jobs that characterized the early to mid-2000s. However, by 2010 nearly twice the share of jobs was located at least 10 miles away from downtown (43%) as within 3 miles of downtown (23%).
  • Job losses in industries hit hardest by the downturn, including construction and manufacturing, helped check employment decentralization in the late 2000s.
  • In all but nine of the 100 largest metro areas, the share of jobs located within three miles of downtown declined during the 2000s.
  • Metro areas showing the greatest increase in jobs in the 10-35 miles radius from downtown include: Phoenix-Mesa-Glendale, AZ, San Antonio-New Braunfels, TX, Austin-Round Rock-San Marcos, TX, Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX, and Houston-Sugar Land-Baytown, TX.
  • Metro areas showing the greatest loss of jobs within the 3 mile radius of downtown include: North Port-Bradenton-Sarasota, FL, Boise City-Nampa, ID, Jackson, MS, McAllen-Edinburg-Mission, TX, Cape Coral-Fort Myers, FL

Source:

Job Sprawl Stalls: The Great Recession and Metropolitan Employment Location

Metropolitan Policy Program, Brookings Institute. Elizabeth Kneebone.

url: http://www.brookings.edu/research/reports/2013/04/18-job-sprawl-kneebone

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MARCH 2013:
U.S. Highway Performance Study by State 1989-2008

Posted by Kearey Smith | MTC GIS

This map illustrates highway improvement performance by state from 1989-2008. A performance index has been prepared to highlight the total number of categories in which each state showed improvement. The darker the shade of green, the more categories of improvement. The light and dark green labels show the total disbursements per mile ($M) per state.

Most states (37 of 50) improved or maintained their performance in five or more categories. And most states (38 of 50) also spent less than the national average, per mile of responsibility. Interestingly, those states that spent the most money did not make the most improvement, and states with relatively few resources also made progress. For instance, California spent about twice as much as the average state (per mile of responsibility), but its performance improved in just two of the seven measures (deficient bridges and fatality rate). Hawaii and New York also spent between 2 and 2.5 times the national average but improved in just three of seven measures. Conversely, 10 states (led by North Dakota, Virginia and Missouri) spent less than the national average per mile of responsibility but improved on all seven measures, and only one state (Florida) improved on all seven measures and spent more than the national average.

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FEBRUARY 2013:
Neighborhood Foreclosure and Abandonment Risk in Bay Area Neighborhoods

Posted by Kearey Smith | MTC GIS

In 2008, the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) created a Neighborhood Stabilization Program to provide emergency assistance to state and local governments to acquire and redevelop foreclosed properties that might otherwise become sources of abandonment and blight within their communities. This program provides grants to every state, certain local communities, and other organizations to purchase foreclosed or abandoned homes and to rehabilitate, resell, or redevelop these homes in order to stabilize neighborhoods and stem the decline of house values of neighboring homes.

This map scores neighborhoods in the bay area on a scale of 1 to 20 where 20 indicates areas in the highest 20% of risk nationwide for home foreclosures and abandonment. 1 indicates areas with lowest risk. This ranking is based upon the following factors developed by HUD:

  1. whether or not loans are high cost or highly leveraged in the neighborhood
  2. change in home values for the metropolitan, or non-metropolitan portion of the state
  3. unemployment rate for the county in 2008, and the change in unemployment in the county between 2007 and 2008.

HUD is providing its data on estimated foreclosures (based on risk) and vacancy data to assist state and local governments in their efforts to target the communities and neighborhoods with the greatest needs. HUD recommends that if states and local governments have local data, such as county data on foreclosure filings, that those data also be given serious consideration in identifying areas of greatest needs.

Map Source: http://www.huduser.org/portal/datasets/nsp.html

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JANUARY 2013:
Hot Spots -- The Carbon Atlas

Posted by Kearey Smith | MTC GIS

This map shows CO2 emissions in 2005 in million tons by countries around the world. The countries are generalized as circles that are proportional in size to the emissions. This shows the United States as the largest emitter and China in the number two position. When these data are expressed as per-capita measures, the United States falls into the 9th position and Qatar is the highest per-capita emitter.

Securing an international agreement to reduce greenhouse gas levels by enough to save the earth from catastrophic temperate rises has been an increasingly challenging task for world leaders. This map, showing countries according to their emissions, shows why an international agreement is needed.

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